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ISSN : 1225-6692(Print)
ISSN : 2287-4518(Online)
Journal of the Korean earth science society Vol.39 No.5 pp.483-500
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5467/JKESS.2018.39.5.483

Exploring Science Communication of Global Issue and Suggesting its Implication in Science Education: The Cases about Nuclear Energy of Korea and Japan

Young-Shin Park1*, Woon-Gwan Chung2, Hisashi Otsuji3
1Department of Earth Science Education, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 61005, Korea
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyo University, Saitma 350-8585, Japan
Corresponding author: parkys@chosun.ac.kr Tel: +82-62-230-7379
August 8, 2018 October 12, 2018 October 19, 2018

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to explore what kinds of science communication are ongoing in formal and informal settings for learning about nuclear energy, which is very important issue domestically and internationally. The researchers collected and analyzed data from science textbooks at elementary and middle school levels, from exhibitions in Y informal hall that belongs to one nuclear power plant, and from 40 bestselling books about nuclear energy in order to explore the kind of science communication. The same process was used to explore Japanese case so that we could compare the results with Korean cases and draw implications for enhancing science communication about nuclear energy. The science communication of nuclear energy in Korea included implicit and indirect content espoused in science textbooks; two opposite views displayed in bestselling books, and positive aspects mainly displayed in exhibition of information hall in nuclear power plant. It is suggested that both direct and explicit science communication along with the neutral viewpoints including positive and negative ones be provided for the public to form a good understanding of nuclear energy



초록


    Chosun University

    Introduction

    The purpose of science education for the 21st century is for the public to understand social scientific issue rationally and make decision if that issue is right or wrong to take action for the solution (Burns et al., 2003;Park, 2018a;2018b;Lee, 2018;Yu et al., 2008). For this, students in science education should have chances to be exposed to access those global issues easily, collect rich information from different views so that they can take their position to solve the given problem.

    In addition, global issues such as climate change and natural disasters have been drawn much attention. Since the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulting from a natural calamity, the world has perceived the risks of nuclear power plants. Understanding the nuclear energy in the context of nuclear accidents and alternative energy sources has engaged great public attention. The public need to build the awareness of such global and social challenges through objective information and actively engage in social concerns. Thus, it is necessary to improve the scientific literacy regarding social and global issues in line with the advancement of science technology and to exert efforts to increase the public understanding of science via informal as well as formal educational institutions (Kim et al., 2016;Kim and Kim, 2014;Oh, 2004;Peters and Slovic, 1996). To make the public equipped with competencies of solving the problem for SSI (Social Scientific Issue)/ global issues, first thing to do beforehand is to make them form rational understandings about those issues, which are the basic information to be used for people to make their accurate, ethical, and rational decision to take action for the solution. Therefore, it is also necessary for the public to be exposed to rich science communication of SSI given to them through various media such as books, museums, and more. What kind of information do the public need to form rational understanding about global issues?

    There have been many researches about science communication delivering message to the public. Some researches criticize that science communication stands out only for concepts or knowledge in science in some science museum or docents or educators deliver science concepts mainly to the public (Kim et al., 2016;Lee and Park, 2012;Park and Lee, 2011; Park, 2016). Science communication contains more than concepts. Science communication is typically considered as the activities of professional communicators or as the promotion of the public understanding of science. But now science communication is more than profession in science. The public understand science more easily and use science to their lives on the basis of their understandings. To make this happen, the public understand that science communication consists of concepts (surely this can be main component for the public to understand), interest (motivated to learn), enjoyment (keep holding interest as entertainment), awareness (feel sternly that science is impacting on human being positively or negatively), opinion (the public have chance to express their ideas), and nature of science (STS or science as process) (Burns et al., 2003; Park, 2018). To understand any issue, there must be effective science communication for the public to access it easily. All science communication must be delivered through engaging model, not deficit model, through textbook, any media, or exhibition in museums (Burns et al., 2003; Illingworth, 2017; Spicer, 2017). Researches analyzing science communication in exhibition of science museum including natural history museum released that the most dominating components of science communication include concepts and interest motivating visitors’ learning and other components rarely appeared. Only concepts and interests of science communications displayed in the text panels have limitation for the public to understand issues fully to be scientific literate citizen.

    Recently there has been much interest in SSI including nuclear power plant. Korea, our country, is the sixth member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have built a large number of nuclear power plants in the wake of the Gyeongju earthquake. It ranks second in the world in terms of growth rate. Korea has the world's highest growth rate of nuclear plant capacity in recent 30 years. It means that there are more electricity generating plants than other countries. In 2025, the proportion of nuclear power generation in Korea is projected to increase to 39%. An energy industry official said, ”The world’s energy use paradigm is shifting from the cost center to the environmental, safety, and other value-added center.” Korea also increase the use of natural gas and renewable energy (KHNP, 2016). There have been many issues and discussion about constructing nuclear power plants so far. How can we respond to these all changing issues in the society? The public need to be equipment with competencies to make decision about their position before taking action. Then it is critical to investigate how much rich science communication about nuclear energy is offered to the public and what sources/media is accessible easily for the public? In this study, the researchers will use the following questions.

    • (1) What components of science communication are included in nuclear radiation in the settings of formal education as well as informal education?

    • (2) What implication can be made for science education for nuclear energy?

    The significance of this study can be as follows; first, this study can be the basis of research suggesting the direction of developing nuclear energy standards in science curriculum if necessary. Second, this study will imply the direction of how to improve science communication for citizens’ better perception about nuclear energy education.

    The significance of this study is to provide the importance of providing information for students or citizen to be exposed toward scientific issue/global issues so that they can access them easily to form their reasonable perception about global issues. Formal as well as informal science learning settings are considered to provide enough and rational information about global issues for students and citizens to be literate scientifically, and this study will be used as the basic data proving why we need to include and improve science communication in nuclear energy for the 21st century science education.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this study was to explore how formal as well as informal science learning education can provide chances for students to experience rich science communication of nuclear radiation in Korea and Japan. The comparison between Korea and Japan case aimed to illustrate how the current status quo of science communication of nuclear energy in Korea was alike and to suggest its developing direction for the citizens’ better understanding about nuclear energy.

    Data came from two different contexts (Fig. 1); one is from the formal setting of science learning; science textbooks about nuclear energy at elementary as well as secondary level (middle school). The other is from the informal setting of science learning; the exhibits in science museum (information hall) and commercial books about nuclear energy. These all data came from Korea and Japan simultaneously. The information hall in Korea is the exhibition hall attached to the power plant with the purpose of informing visitors/citizen to know better about nuclear power plant as one of energy sources in a positive way. The science museum of Japan is the place with exhibition about nuclear energy/power plant/radiation consisting of its positive/ negative/neutral views.

    For the representing data source of formal setting of science learning, one national science textbook (all textbooks at elementary level is written, approved, and published under the guide of national government) from Korea and Japan were selected and three different publishers' science textbooks from Korea and one publisher science textbook from Japan (all science textbooks at secondary level is written and published by each publisher but approved by the government) were selected. All contents of nuclear energy were searched and selectively recorded for their analysis. The analysis of nuclear energy content in textbooks by the use of SCAT (science communication analyzing tool) released the level and components of science communication (Kim et al., 2017; Park et al., 2014; Park and Yu, 2017). The tool of analyzing science communication included in science exhibition has been used to release its pattern to see which component of science communication is most dominating or least. From this analysis, we could find out which component of science communication is limited in science exhibition and we can imply the way of how to improve science communication. Fig. 2

    For the representing data source of informal setting of science learning, two different data sources about nuclear energy were selected; First data source is the content of nuclear energy in the exhibit at an information hall (Korea) which belongs to a nuclear power plant and nuclear science museum (Japan). All exhibit panels were taken as photos to be analyzed to see what level and components of science communication can be embedded in the exhibit panels. Second data source included the most popular 40 commercial books of nuclear energy selling in Korea as well as Japan and three different views (positive, negative, and neutral) about nuclear radiation were analyzed and confirmed according to their contents. The neutral view means that the content is more scientific concept rather than arguing issue.

    The SCAT (science communication analyzing tool) is the analyzing tool to see what component of science communication are included in any source (text mainly) and how much it is included. Through the SCAT, the most/least frequently dominating or missing component of science communication can be withdrawn with evidence, profiling the pattern of science communication in the context of formal as well as informal science learning. For example (Table 1), number of CON (concept) is 7 confirmed with NOS (nature of science) of 1 and INT (interest) of 2 out of total 10 science communication in one panel as follow. Finally, if one theme (total number of components with 100) of nuclear energy were analyzed, most frequently dominating would be CON, the second INT, and the third NOS. AW (awareness) is the least dominating component of science communication with the missing OP (opinion) in this theme of nuclear energy. In this way, all data collected from the sources of formal as well as informal setting of science learning were analyzed and the analyzed data were compared and discussed among researchers to construct their validity and reliability. In addition to these data sources, the interviews with current teachers at elementary and secondary levels were included for triangulating the data analysis. All about data analysis, the researchers in this study discussed the difference among opinions if any to be consensus in SCAT analysis and other views about nuclear energy. The most difficult discussion was if we include the implicit science communication in textbooks. At this point, teachers who we had interviewed responded that they surely mention about nuclear energy as alternative energy sources when they teach climate change or environment at science or society class even though there is not explicit content in textbooks since this nuclear energy one is pretty current issue for students to know. Therefore, this study include the implicitly reflection about nuclear energy from elementary textbook of Korea to be analyzed on the basis of teachers’ interview. This implies that inclusion of explicit science communication in elementary textbook is critical for students to know to be literate scientifically.

    Results

    The pattern of science communication related to nuclear energy at formal as well as informal settings of science learning were found as follows. The pattern of science communication at formal settings from Korea and Japan was illustrated first, then that of informal one were followed. Fig. 3

    The science communication of nuclear energy at formal learning

    The science textbooks used in classrooms are representing sources for formal learning context, therefore the following science textbooks were selected to profile the science communication of nuclear radiation in Korea and Japan (Table 2).

    Korea: The science communication of nuclear energy at formal learning

    In elementary science textbooks

    The content related to nuclear radiation were found in 4-① and 6-① (4 and 6 means are grades, and ① means the 1st semester. There are two different semesters in each grade). The contents at elementary level included the necessity of alternative/new energy source for reducing CO2 causing global warming of climate change. There was not direct term used explicitly related to nuclear energy and radiation at this level, which was included implicitly instead. The teachers at elementary levels (the researcher contacted several elementary teachers before data analysis in this study) indicated that they mentioned about nuclear energy when they faced the issue of alternative/ renewable energy during science class, so the researchers assumed that the term of nuclear energy or nuclear power plant could be just ‘mentioned’ rather than ‘taught’ in the unit of environment part. Radiation term could be introduced in the unit of ‘our body’ at 5th grade and in the unit of light at 6th grade. Therefore, the researchers interpreted that students at elementary levels can learn science terms related to nuclear/radiation more or less depending on teachers’ competencies. If teachers plan, they can teach more about nuclear/radiation content. Therefore, the researchers analyzed the content of nuclear/ration part which can be included in the unit of ‘environment’, such as one of alternative/renewable energy. Table 3

    The following samples from textbooks displayed what content was covered and linked to the term of nuclear energy. There were introduction of new/ alternative energy sources from plant and natural resource in the ocean, which might have stimulated students to think why new energy source is necessary to be invented/developed at 4th grade. Then, there was more concrete introduction of climate change which could make students feel the necessity of developing new energy source like nuclear energy. Therefore, it can be interpreted that nuclear term itself becomes to be known to students as alternative energy. Table 4

    In summary, there was not direct connection to nuclear energy/radiation in elementary textbook, but there could be cited as one of energy sources to solve the issues of climate change. All science communication found in elementary textbooks can include concepts, nature of science where students can perceive that science has relationship with society (only nuclear energy can be cited by teachers depending on their competency), and interests made by other stories as alternative energy. This all communication can be possible (not cited directly in the textbook) by teachers. There is not direct instruction about nuclear energy/power plant in elementary textbook. However, a few teachers responded that they could mention, not teach, nuclear radiation in the unit of light at 6th grade, in the unit of our body at 5th grade, and in the unit of environment overall the grades to the question if they teach during any class.

    In middle school science textbooks

    The following contents were covered. There was not exact explicitly used term of nuclear radiation in the 7th grade science book, but all contents were about heat source on the earth, global warming causing climate change from CO2, and new/alternative energy source for inhibiting climate change such as natural resources in the ocean, which were connected to the introduction of why nuclear energy is interested at modern times. According to teachers’ competencies, nuclear energy could be introduced as one of alternative energy source which could inhibit climate change threatening human being. Nuclear energy could not be released without mentioning climate change in the textbook, therefore, the content of climate change was considered as critical condition bringing up the term of nuclear energy.

    When the researchers analyzed those content of nuclear radiation related with the use of SCAT mentioned earlier, the usage of science communication in the textbooks was resulted as follows. There was not direct scientific term introducing nuclear radiation; instead, those textbooks covered nuclear one in terms of alternative energy sources and renewable one through climate change issues.

    Most of science communication about nuclear radiation found in Korean textbooks were connected with climate change so it was introduced as one of energy source. The direct and explicit introduction about nuclear power plant or nuclear radiation were not described. But most of science communication about nuclear energy was possible only in that nuclear one is one of alternative energies for the future. Overall, the direct connection to nuclear energy one and its details were rarely included in Korean textbooks. But indirect/implicit connection about nuclear energy as one of alternative ones for the future was found in the textbooks.

    In this distribution of science communication, there was not enjoyment which keep students’ interest in topic learning due to textbook format. There was only description about nuclear energy by text not hands-on activity, which means that students cannot enjoy the process of learning nuclear one. There were other component of science communication; STS in nature of science were included in that nuclear energy was one of alternative energy source in the textbook. Overall, science communication in Korean textbooks are summarized as follows; there were 5 components of science communication found in textbooks but implicitly not direct connection with nuclear power plant or nuclear radiation. There was only description about nuclear power itself as negative view in terms of safety. Most of other communication about nuclear energy was the only one of energy sources for the solution of climate change. In addition, nuclear energy has different portion out of alternative energy source according to different textbook publisher which means that the inclusion of nuclear radiation/nuclear power plant in the textbook can be decided by the writers and editors, therefore, the writers’ competencies of understanding about nuclear power plant/radiation is necessary as long as those concepts about nuclear energy are for students to learn.

    Japan: The science communication of nuclear energy at formal learning

    The reason why the case of Japan in science communication of nuclear energy is included in this study is to seek direction for development in science communication of nuclear energy in Korea. The Japanese information about nuclear energy is well known and exposed to the public so that they can be informed of them easily and profoundly. Rather than comparing those two cases of nuclear energy in Korea and Japan, seeking direction of development in education as well as culture about nuclear energy in Korea for the public is the reason for including Japanese case of nuclear energy in this study. Therefore, it is reasonable to include Japanese case in this study because Japan is the place where the most disasters related to nuclear power have occurred and related information is the most well-known place. Based on this, it is necessary to build and improve the perception of nuclear energy in Korea.

    In elementary science textbooks

    There are some description about nuclear power plant or nuclear radiation in textbooks. There were some pages in 6th grade regarding of alternative energies.

    The inclusion of science communication about nuclear energy in elementary textbook was similar to those of Korean textbooks. The difference between these two textbooks was that a considerable amount of science communication about nuclear one was introduced in 6th grade mainly, on the other hand, a little amount from 4 to 6th in Korean textbooks each. Science communication about nuclear one in 6th textbook was mainly discussed as one of energy sources not in terms of radiation or nuclear fusion. Therefore, science communication of nuclear one in Japanese elementary textbook is summarized in that nuclear energy was mainly discussed in elementary textbooks, not in detail about nuclear energy but in term introduction of nuclear energy.

    In middle school science textbooks

    Only one publisher of science textbook at middle school level was chosen and pages mentioning nuclear related part was selected for the analysis with the use of SCAT. The following pages displayed selectively were analyzed with interpretation with the view of science communication.

    Concept (related to nuclear power plant, nuclear energy, nuclear pile), interest, STS (from NOS, its safety), awareness (getting to know the efficiency of nuclear energy when compared to other ones), opinion (suggest nuclear energy as most expecting benefit energy source with pros and cons) and enjoyment (a few activities of comparing radiation strength) in science communication were found in textbooks, which are very explicit and direct connection to nuclear one. This is most prominent one between two textbooks dealing with nuclear energy one.

    In summary about science communication of nuclear energy in formal setting science learning, the comparison of science textbooks (elementary and middle school ones) between Korea and Japan was that there was only introduction of nuclear energy as one of alternative energies in the future in Korean textbook and science communication consisted of mainly concepts and interests, which is INDIECT/ IMPLICIT one connected to nuclear energy. On the other hand, Japanese textbooks covered the details of nuclear energy and radiation from elementary book and more detail knowledge and experimentation about nuclear energy and radiation were introduced in middle school textbooks and science communication covered all components from concept to enjoyment, which are very DIRECT/EXPLICIT connections to nuclear energy/radiation.

    The science communication of nuclear radiation at informal learning

    In the second part of study, science communication of nuclear energy/radiation were checked through informal setting science learning. In this study, two data resources were selected. One is information hall in Y nuclear power plant of Korea (we do not have any nuclear science museum in Korea) and one nuclear science museum in Japan. The other data source was what kind of nuclear related general books were bestselling and what content they covered. The data came from information hall in Korea and science museum in Japan. Information from two different exhibition halls can show various perception to the visitors, which means that there can be more information in a positive way in information hall attached to nuclear power plant of Korea and neutral information including positive/negative perceptions in science museum of Japan. The data from these two sources cannot be compared but show different pattern of science communication.

    Korea: The science communication of nuclear energy at informal learning

    Information Hall in Y nuclear power plant in Korea

    Information Hall in Y nuclear power plant in Korea The researchers selected exhibitions appropriate for analyzing science communication in information hall. There were 6 different references from introducing different types of alternative/renewable energy sources to notifying visitors that nuclear energy is very efficient one for the future energy source. There were 191 exhibition selected samples for this study and the following exhibitions are the examples of total ones. Y information hall belongs to Y nuclear power plant.

    Since Y information hall aims that visitors perceive nuclear energy and nuclear power plant positively, most exhibitions include knowledge about nuclear energy/radiation (the history of discovering radiation and related experimentation by scientists was also included) and its efficiency as energy source in Korea for the future. Since information hall belongs to power plant, their exhibition was real models so that visitors could see how nuclear power energy is produced, how nuclear pile is working, and how nuclear waste is disposed of. The message of most exhibitions released positive view so that visitors could have positive perception of nuclear energy. Table 5 showed the pattern of science communication included in exhibition of nuclear information hall. 117 concept component of science communication was the most dominating out of total 191 analyzed in this study.

    The distribution of science communication in information hall consisted of concepts as the most dominating one (61%, 117/191) and interest in the second dominating one (27.6%, 53/191). Other components of science communication included NOS (mostly connected to STS; 3.6%), awareness (become to know the economic efficiency of nuclear energy; 4.7%), and enjoyment (checking radiation level numerically by equipment; 2.5%). Only one opinion was included as the type of quiz where visitors can answer to those questions in exhibition. As other results in science communication analysis (Kim et al., 2017; Park and Choi, 2014), the trend of science communication was illustrated mainly by concept and interest in this study (Fig. 4).

    Most popular selling 40 General public books about nuclear energy in Korea

    For this analysis of 40 books about nuclear energy popular to the public, the researchers used the key words related to nuclear energy, and selected the 40 books to purchase or get information about the selected books in contents. General books used in this study included comics, kids’ books, and magazine or general books for citizens to understand easily about nuclear energy. The results are as follows; most books related to nuclear energy were aiming for adults (67.5%, 27/40) and the least for kids (12.5%, 5/40). The content of selected books covered negative one (it is not safe; 40%, 16/40), neutral one (just information about nuclear energy; 35%, 15/40), and positive one (as one of alternative energy; 25%. 10/40) (Fig. 5).

    In summary, science communication of nuclear energy by informal setting science learning consisted of that positive content about nuclear energy with concepts and interest in information hall were noticeable and negative perception can be easily formed through general books open to the public. The balanced content between two anodes through informal setting science learning must be achieved for rational understandings and actions about nuclear energy in Korea.

    Japan: The science communication of nuclear energy at informal learning

    Science Museum in A nuclear power plant in Japan

    The researchers collected the data about nuclear energy by visiting one nuclear science museum in Japan. The outstanding characteristics of nuclear science museums were that there were two different routes for visitors; one is for kids and the other for adult use. Most of exhibition was displayed by games and simple hands-on actives so that kids could understand nuclear energy/radiation easily in one aisle for kids. In adult route, there were more professional content of nuclear energy/radiation displayed by graphs, cited real articles, tables, and charts. Some samples below explained what kinds of communication were covered in this nuclear museum; history of discovering radiation and knowledge by scientists, radiation level in daily life, pros and cons of using radiation, safety, efficiency as one of alternative energy in the future (Table 6).

    The most dominating component of science communication was concept (37.4%, 133/356) and the second dominating component was interest (30%, 107/ 356), which is the same pattern of those in Korea. However, other components of science communication, nature of science (like STS; 13.2%, 47/356), awareness (related to safety and efficiency as one of alternative energies; 8.7%, 31/356), enjoyment (games and activities; 9.2%, 33/356), and opinion (solving the problem by interactive media; 1.4%, 5/356), were observed in this exhibition of nuclear science museum (Fig. 7).

    A noticeable point of science communication in Japanese nuclear science museum is that all components were relatively balanced in their frequencies about nuclear energy and their content covered all areas from history to safety in nuclear energy. When compared to those of Korea, the distribution of science communication of Japan in science museum has been relatively and evenly reflected. The concept and interest component were two highly dominating but other components of science communication has been also distributed in their usage in communication. The impressive point in displaying exhibitions about nuclear energy has been separated into two routes so that visitors like kids obtain knowledge of nuclear energy through games and visitors like adults do differently. This is how to promote science communication level through different media appropriate to the level of visitors (Falk, 2009; Kato-Nitta et al., 2017).

    Most popular selling 40 General public books about nuclear energy in Japan

    The researchers contacted one Japanese scholar to search for the 40 bestselling general books for the public through the most popular publisher company (like amazon in USA or kyobobook in Korea). As in the situation in Korea, most general books were aiming for adult readers, but the second most for kids rather than youth. The content of nuclear energy books consisted of mainly neutral one (85%, 34/40), negative one (7.5%, 3/40), positive one (7.5%, 3/40), which is very different from those of Korea. This is very rational point so that citizen has a right to form their perception about nuclear energy (Fig. 8).

    In summary of science communication about nuclear energy in informal setting science learning, science communication analyzed by information hall was mainly concept and interest with positive content (nuclear energy is the economically most efficient one without damaging environment) but there was little information about nuclear accident. Instead there was safety issue about nuclear one to prevent nuclear accidents in advance. General books for the public were targeting adulating mainly with positive content or negative one, opposite contents each, which make public have biased views about one content.

    On the other hand, science communication displayed in Japanese nuclear science museum exposed concept as the most frequently found and interest as the second most component in order, however, other components (nature of science, awareness, enjoyment, opinion) were also relatively well represented so that visitors could experience all components of science communication about nuclear energy. General books popular to the public consisted of neutral contents mainly rather than one-sided perspective (negative or positive one) targeting mainly adults, but kids as the second most.

    Conclusion and Implication

    On the basis of results, the following conclusion and implication can be made for science communication for the public about nuclear energy.

    First, the more explicit content about global issue (nuclear energy in this study) must be introduced from elementary level, since students can have more worldview through science issues rationally (Burnouf, 2004;Lee, 2018;Wilson, 2000). There was only introduction about nuclear energy as one of alternative energy at Korean science textbook at elementary level and mainly at middle school level. The science communication about nuclear energy from those textbooks was analyzed releasing the following result; those communication components were grasped to some extent, but those were all implicit/indirect connection to nuclear energy. In recent years, there was increasing public interest in nuclear energy in Korea; therefore, it is highly suggested to include direct content about nuclear energy so that kids at early age could form understandings about it through games or cartoons easily. It is recommended that forming perception at early age is very critical for habit formation (Bae, 2003;Bissoli, 2014). When given the growing interest in global issues related to earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear energy recently, it is very time for science educators and teachers to focus on developing programs and activities where students can experience and form rational understandings which influence their decision and behaviors as scientifically literate citizens. From this view, it is very reasonable for students in Japan to acquire rich information and science communication about nuclear energy through formal learning settings from elementary level.

    Second, rich science communication of global issue (nuclear energy in this study) must be introduced through informal as well formal learning setting for their rational worldview. Students in Korea should have chances to learn details about nuclear energy such as basic scientific concepts of nuclear energy/ radiation discovered through history, advantage/ disadvantage of each energy source, the function of nuclear power plant, the safety rules we need to follow and so on in ans science museum as well if possible. However, all of contents mentioned must be introduced explicitly and directly through activities, experimentation, real articles, and real accident report about nuclear energy, which should be disclosed. Students should experience all contents related to nuclear energy where they could express their opinion, experience real experimentation, feel social aspect of nuclear energy in the history, and find out the relationship among science, technology, and society through all rich science communication. Finally students through rich science communication (6 components of science communication) can become scientifically literate citizen (Burns et al., 2003; Park, 2018; Park, Choi and Ryu, 2014; Yu et al., 2008).

    Third, the public including students should be able to easily access the mass media, books, and other public materials without prejudice. The public should have the right to choose their stance on the basis of information collected by sources open to the public in daily life. All mass media should deliver the neutral position including perspectives of two opposite position about any global issue. For example, in this study, general books about nuclear energy has two opposite views; one is preferring having nuclear power plant in Korea, the other preventing having it. The least percent of total books analyzed in this study released to hold two views (positive, negative) at the same time. On the contrary, most percent of Japanese books analyzed in this study was shown to hold two views to be neutral at the same time. Scientifically literate citizen can make decision if any issue is right or wrong on the basis of collected information, so it is very critical for people to hold different views (here, positive and negative about nuclear energy) through rich science communication of reading books or visiting nuclear museums or information hall. In case of Japan, the public could access books including positive and negative views about nuclear energy at the same time, which we assume is pivotal for the public to form their neutral perspective, which in turn should be basis for their action in the society for solving global issues. Therefore, it is very important for the public to experience any global issue through rich science communication which include pros and cons at the same time. From this conclusion, developing professional science museum for nuclear energy can be one of solution for the public to form rational understanding and take action for global issues they face.

    In addition to conclusions mentioned above, it is recommended to run professional development program about global issue through formal as well as informal educational institutes so that citizen as well as students could have easily chances to learn more about global issues. Furthermore, there had been many reports and news about SSI (social scientific issue) through which people have rights to perceive them enough, explicitly, and clearly, therefore, more professional experts must be trained and assigned to public site for public understandings about science (Sutton, 1998; 1999; Werner and Case, 1997;Lee, 2018).

    Acknowledgment

    This study was supported by research fund of Chosun University, 2016 (2016-205747-01).

    Figure

    JKESS-39-483_F1.gif

    The procedure of the research

    JKESS-39-483_F2.gif

    Distribution of science communication at Korean science textbooks.

    CON (concept)/NOS (nature of science)/AW (awareness)/INT (interest)/ ENJ (enjoyment)/OP (opinion)

    JKESS-39-483_F3.gif

    Distribution of science communication at Japanese science textbooks.

    CON (concept)/NOS (nature of science)/AW (awareness)/INT (interest)/ ENJ (enjoyment)/OP (opinion)

    JKESS-39-483_image1.gif
    JKESS-39-483_image2.gif
    JKESS-39-483_image3.gif
    JKESS-39-483_image4.gif
    JKESS-39-483_F4.gif

    Distribution of science communication at Korean Y Information Hall.

    CON (concept)/NOS (nature of science)/AW (awareness)/INT (interest)/ ENJ (enjoyment)/OP (opinion)

    JKESS-39-483_image5.gif
    JKESS-39-483_F5.gif

    The most popular 40 books about nuclear energy in Korea

    JKESS-39-483_F7.gif

    Distribution of science communication at Japanese nuclear science museum.

    CON (concept)/NOS (nature of science)/AW (awareness)/INT (interest)/ ENJ (enjoyment)/OP (opinion)

    JKESS-39-483_F8.gif

    The most popular 40 books about nuclear energy in Japan

    JKESS-39-483_image6.gif

    Table

    SCAT (science communication analyzing tool)

    The science textbooks selected for this study

    The distribution of science communication found in Korean science textbooks

    The distribution of science communication found in Japanese science textbooks

    The distribution of science communication found in Korean Y information Hall

    The distribution of science communication found in nuclear science musuem of Japan

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