Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1225-6692(Print)
ISSN : 2287-4518(Online)
Journal of the Korean earth science society Vol.34 No.4 pp.345-355

고등학교 지구과학 수업에서 플래시 파노라마 기반 가상 야외 답사의 활용이 학생들의 공간 시각화 능력 및 화산 개념 이해에 미치는 영향

강원대학교 과학교육학부, 200-701, 강원도 춘천시 강원대학길 1
가상 야외 답사(VFT)는 전통적인 야외 답사의 매력적인 대안으로 간주되지만, 지구과학 교육과정에서 어떻게 가장 효과적으로 활용될 수 있는지는 아직 명확하지 않다. 이 연구에서는 플래시 파노라마 기반 VFT를 활용한 지구과학 수업이 고등학교 학생들의 공간 시각화 능력과 화산 개념 이해에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 플래시 파노라마 기반 VFT 활용의 효과를 알아보기 위해 수업 처치 사전 및 사후에 공간 시각화 능력 및 화산 개념 검사를 실시하였으며, 수업 처치 결과를 분석하기 위해 공변량 분석과 선형 회귀 분석을 수행하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 실험집단의 공간 시각화 능력 향상 정도가 통제 집단에 비해 통계적으로 유의미하게 더 높게 나타났다. 특히, 공간 시각화 능력의 세 가지 하부 범주 중 공간 조작 능력 향상이 가장 큰 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 대부분의 범주에서 실험 집단의 화산 개념 이해 향상 정도가 통제 집단에 비해 더 높게 나타났으나, 1개 범주를 제외하고 통계적으로 유의미한 차이는 아니었다. 셋째, VFT 활용 후 실험 집단이 통제 집단에 비해 공간 시각화 능력과 화산 개념 이해 간의 상관관계가 현저하게 증가하였다.

The Effects of Flash Panorama-based Virtual Field Trips on Students’ Spatial Visualization Ability and Their Understanding of Volcanic Concept in High School Earth Science Class

*Corresponding author:

Tel: 82 33 250 6752

Fax: 82 33 242 9598
, Jun-Hyuk Heo and Ki-Young Lee*

Division of Science Education, Kangwon National University, Gangwon 200-701, Korea


While virtual field trips (VFT) are considered as an attractive alternative to traditional field experience, it isunclear how VFT are best used in Earth Science curriculum. In this study, we investigated the effects of flash panoramabased VFT on students’ spatial visualization ability and their understanding of volcanic concept in high school EarthScience class. To investigate the effects of instructional treatment, we conducted pre and post test on participants’ spatialvisualization ability and their understanding of volcanic concept, and analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)and linear regression. Findings are as follows: First, the change in students’ spatial visualization ability in experimentalgroup was significantly higher than that of control group, especially in spatial manipulation category. Second, the changein students’ understanding of volcanic concept in experimental group was higher than that of control group in most of thecategories, but it is statistically not significant. Last, the change in correlation between spatial visualization ability andunderstanding of volcanic concept in experimental group was remarkably high compared to control group.


1.Arrowsmith, C., Counihan, A., and McGreevy, D., 2005, Development of a multi-scaled virtual field trip for the teaching and learning of geospatial science. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 1, 42-56.
2.Baldwin, T.K. and Hall-Wallace, M., 2005, Spatial ability development in the geosciences. Geological Society of America with Program, 111-132.
3.Black, A.A., 2005, Spatial ability and Earth science conceptual understanding. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 402-414.
4.Bodner, G.M. and Guay, R.B., 1997, T18he Purdue visualization of rotations test. The Chemical Educator, 2, 1-17.
5.Cowden, P.A., DeMartin, J.D., and Lutey, W.E., 2006, Stepping inside the classroom: A look into Virtual Field Trip and the constructivist educator. Retrieved March 7, 2009, from
6.Elkins, J.T. and Elkins, N.M.L., 2007, Teaching geology in the field: signigicant geoscience concept gains in entirely field-based introductory geology courses. Journal of Geoscience Education, 55, 126-132.
7.Foley, K., 2003, A virtual field trip into real technology standards. Proquest. Multimedia Schools, 10, 38-40.
8.Hesthammer, J., Fossen, H., Sautter, M., Saether, B. and Johansen, S.E., 2002, The use of information technology to enhance learning in geological field trips. Journal of Geoscience Education, 50, 528-538.
9.Hake, R., 1998, Interactive engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66, 64-74.
10.Hurst, S.D., 1998, Use of "virtual" field trips in teaching introductory geology, Computers and Geoscience, 50, 528-538.
11.Joung, Y.J. and Song, J.W., 2006, The features of hypotheses generated by pre-service elementary teachers using the forms of Peirce's abduction. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 25, 126-140. (in Korean)
12.Kali, Y., 2003, A virtual journey within the rock-cycle: A software kit for the development of systems-Thinking in the context of the earth's crust. Journal of Geoscience Education, 51, 165-170.
13.Kali, Y. and Orion, N., 1996, Spatial abilities of highschool students in the perception of geologic structures, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 369-391.
14.Kali, Y. and Orion, N., 1997, Software for assisting high school students in the spatial perception of geological structures. Journal of Geoscience Education. 45, 10-21.
15.Kastens, K.A., Manduca, C.A., Cervato, C., Frodeman, F., Goodwin, C., Liben, L.S., Mogk, D.W., Spangler, T.C., Stillings, N.A., and Titus, S, 2009, How geoscientists think and learn. Eos Trans, 90, 265-266.
16.Kelly, M.M. and Riggs, N.R., 2006, Use of virtual environment in the geowall to increase student confidence and performance during field mapping: An example from an introductory-level field class. Journal of Geoscience Education, 54(2), 158-164.
17.Kim, G.W. and Lee, K.Y., 2011, Developing web-based virtual geological field trip by using flash panorama and exploring the ways of utilization: A case of Jeju Island in Korea. Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 32, 212-224. (in Korean)
18.Koh, J.S., Yun, S.H., and Kang, S.S., 2003, Petrology of volcanic rocks in the Paekrogdam crater area, Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, Journal of Petrological Society of Korea, 12, 1-15. (in Korean)
19.Kwak, Y.S., 2001, Theoretical background of constructivist epistemology, Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 24, 427-447. (in Korean)
20.Lee, W.S., Kim, H.S., and Kim, H., 2004, Development and effects of program for enhancement of spatial abilities in the units related to geology of high school students. Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 25, 391-401. (in Korean)
21.Libarkin, J.C. and Anderson, S.W., 2005, Assessment of learning in entry-level geoscience cource: Result from the geoscience concept inventory, Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 294-401.
22.Libarkin, J.C., 2008, Concept inventories in higher education science: A manuscript prepared for the National Research Council promising practices in undergraduate STEM education workshop. Washington, D.C., USA, 13p.
23.Ministry of education, science and technology, 2011, 2009 revised high school science curriculum specifications. Seoul, Korea, 63p. (in Korean)
24.Orion, N., 1989, Development of a high school geology course based on field trips. Journal of Geological Education, 37, 13-17.
25.Orion, N., 1993, A Model for the development and implementation of field trips as an integral part of the science curriculum. School Science and Mathematics, 93, 325-331.
26.Qiu, W. and Hubble, T., 2002, The advantages and disadvantages of virtual field trips in Geoscience Education. The China Papers, October 2002, 75-79.
27.Titus, S, and Horsman, E., 2009, Characterizing and improving spatial visualization skills, Journal of Geoscience Education, 57, 242-254.
28.Wong., C.A., 2011, Performance on the geologic spatial visualization survey: A comparison between junior and senior undergraduates students. Bachelor of Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 57p.
29.Yoon, S., Hyun, W.H., and Jung, C.H., 2005, Geology of Hallasan (Mt. Halla), Jeju Island. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea, 41, 481-497. (in Korean)